/*
* Copyright (C) 2009 Tobias Brunner
* Copyright (C) 2005-2007 Martin Willi
* Copyright (C) 2005 Jan Hutter
* Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
* under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
* Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
* option) any later version. See .
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
* WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
* or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
* for more details.
*/
/**
* @defgroup scheduler scheduler
* @{ @ingroup processing
*/
#ifndef SCHEDULER_H_
#define SCHEDULER_H_
typedef struct scheduler_t scheduler_t;
#include
#include
/**
* The scheduler queues timed events which are then passed to the processor.
*
* The scheduler is implemented as a heap. A heap is a special kind of tree-
* based data structure that satisfies the following property: if B is a child
* node of A, then key(A) >= (or <=) key(B). So either the element with the
* greatest (max-heap) or the smallest (min-heap) key is the root of the heap.
* We use a min-heap whith the key being the absolute unix time at which an
* event is scheduled. So the root is always the event that will fire next.
*
* An earlier implementation of the scheduler used a sorted linked list to store
* the events. That had the advantage that removing the next event was extremely
* fast, also, adding an event scheduled before or after all other events was
* equally fast (all in O(1)). The problem was, though, that adding an event
* in-between got slower, as the number of events grew larger (O(n)).
* For each connection there could be several events: IKE-rekey, NAT-keepalive,
* retransmissions, expire (half-open), and others. So a gateway that probably
* has to handle thousands of concurrent connnections has to be able to queue a
* large number of events as fast as possible. Locking makes this even worse, to
* provide thread-safety, no events can be processed, while an event is queued,
* so making the insertion fast is even more important.
*
* That's the advantage of the heap. Adding an element to the heap can be
* achieved in O(log n) - on the other hand, removing the root node also
* requires O(log n) operations. Consider 10000 queued events. Inserting a new
* event in the list implementation required up to 10000 comparisons. In the
* heap implementation, the worst case is about 13.3 comparisons. That's a
* drastic improvement.
*
* The implementation itself uses a binary tree mapped to a one-based array to
* store the elements. This reduces storage overhead and simplifies navigation:
* the children of the node at position n are at position 2n and 2n+1 (likewise
* the parent node of the node at position n is at position [n/2]). Thus,
* navigating up and down the tree is reduced to simple index computations.
*
* Adding an element to the heap works as follows: The heap is always filled
* from left to right, until a row is full, then the next row is filled. Mapped
* to an array this gets as simple as putting the new element to the first free
* position. In a one-based array that position equals the number of elements
* currently stored in the heap. Then the heap property has to be restored, i.e.
* the new element has to be "bubbled up" the tree until the parent node's key
* is smaller or the element got the new root of the tree.
*
* Removing the next event from the heap works similarly. The event itself is
* the root node and stored at position 1 of the array. After removing it, the
* root has to be replaced and the heap property has to be restored. This is
* done by moving the bottom element (last row, rightmost element) to the root
* and then "seep it down" by swapping it with child nodes until none of the
* children has a smaller key or it is again a leaf node.
*/
struct scheduler_t {
/**
* Adds a event to the queue, using a relative time offset in s.
*
* @param job job to schedule
* @param time relative time to schedule job, in s
*/
void (*schedule_job) (scheduler_t *this, job_t *job, u_int32_t s);
/**
* Adds a event to the queue, using a relative time offset in ms.
*
* @param job job to schedule
* @param time relative time to schedule job, in ms
*/
void (*schedule_job_ms) (scheduler_t *this, job_t *job, u_int32_t ms);
/**
* Adds a event to the queue, using an absolut time.
*
* The passed timeval should be calculated based on the time_monotonic()
* function.
*
* @param job job to schedule
* @param time absolut time to schedule job
*/
void (*schedule_job_tv) (scheduler_t *this, job_t *job, timeval_t tv);
/**
* Returns number of jobs scheduled.
*
* @return number of scheduled jobs
*/
u_int (*get_job_load) (scheduler_t *this);
/**
* Destroys a scheduler object.
*/
void (*destroy) (scheduler_t *this);
};
/**
* Create a scheduler.
*
* @return scheduler_t object
*/
scheduler_t *scheduler_create(void);
#endif /** SCHEDULER_H_ @}*/